Related Blog Posts
- How to Optimize a Pixel Movement Enabled Game
- Using Pixel Movement in BYOND
- demystifying pixel movement
You might also be interested in this blog post which explains what pixel movement is and why you might want to use it.
The library comes multiple demos that show how to use the library, ranging from very basic examples to actual game-like examples. It also has a complete reference which lists and explains all vars and procs defined by the library.
Version 5.6 (posted 07-07-2012)
• Changed the move_towards() proc to allow non-turf arguments. The mob will continually move towards an obj, mob, or turf.
• Fixed a runtime error with referencing the PixelMovement object's tile_width var.
• Changed the format of some for() loops to not specify a type filter (ex: for(var/atom/a in ...)) when iterating over a list that's known to contain only atoms. This might provide a slight improvement in performance of the set_flags() proc but it's hard to get precise profiling measurements.
Version 5.5 (posted 06-08-2012)
• Changed the way Move(), Entered(), and Exited() are called. Move() is called when the center of your mob moves to a different turf. This also triggers the Entered and Exited procs for turfs and areas (if you're changing areas). If you need something more precise, use the stepped_on proc.
• The calls to turf's Entered and Exited procs can be unreliable with this new scheme, so I added the turf.entered() and turf.exited() procs which you can use instead. These are only called by moves stemming from pixel_move, not calls to Move() directly.
• Removed the TURF_ENTERED and AREA_ENTERED compiler flags. These procs are now called all the time, though they're less precise than before.
• Added the global PixelMovement object which contains global options to control the library's behavior at runtime.
• Moved the global vars and world procs (ex: world.movement) to the PixelMovement object.
• Added the PixelMovement.distance var which determines which distance metric the distance_to proc uses. Its value can be PixelMovement.EUCLIDEAN, PixelMovement.MANHATTAN, or PixelMovement.BYOND (the same metric as get_dist, also called the Chebyshev distance but "BYOND" is easier to type).
• Added the PixelMovement.debug var which can be used to enable debugging. The global var PIXEL_MOVEMENT_DEBUG still exists for now and does the same thing. All of the demos were converted to use the PixelMovement.debug var.
• Added the PixelMovement.tile_width and PixelMovement.tile_height vars which replace the global icon_width and icon_height vars. Previously isometric maps were handled improperly with non-square values for world.icon_size. Now they're handled properly.
Version 5.4.1 (posted 05-25-2012)
• Added support for the step_x/y and bounds_x/y vars. The New() proc for /atom/movable uses these values to initialize the pixel_x/y and px/py vars. If you change the step_x/y or bounds_x/y vars at runtime they won't take effect, just use pixel_x/y or px/py instead.
• Added the atom.distance_to() proc which takes an atom as an argument and returns the Euclidean distance between the centers of the atoms.
Version 5.4 (posted 05-23-2012)
• Fixed some issues with how paths were followed when you called move_to.
• Added the moved_to() and moved_towards() procs which are called when a mob reaches their destination after the move_to or move_towards procs were called.
• Fixed a bug wqith the mob.inside() proc. When passed a single parameter (an atom) it would incorrectly return true if the atoms were only adjacent.
• Changed the set_pos() proc to call the mob's Move() proc when the mob transitions from one tile to another.
• Updated some of the demos to fix the mob's icon_state. A change in v5.3 made the mob have a blank icon state in some demos.
• Made the slow_down() proc slow client-controlled mobs when the client's focus has changed to another object.
Version 5.3 (posted 05-12-2012)
• Fixed a bug in set_state() that caused the jumping state to not be applied in certain cases.
• Added include.txt so the Keyboard library should be downloaded automatically if you need it.
• Added a second paramter to the front(), right(), left(), top(), and bottom() procs. The first parameter is the depth of the bounding box, the second argument is the width. By default it is the width of the mob. For example, if a mob attacks by thrusting a 4 pixel wide dagger out 10 pixels in front, you'd call front(10, 4) to check for targets. This parameter was not added to the above() and below() procs, I'm not sure what it'd mean in three dimensions.
• Added the camera.pixel_x and camera.pixel_y vars so you can more easily create a pixel offset for the camera.
• Added the TURF_ENTERED and AREA_ENTERED compiler flags to _flags.dm. It takes extra work to detect when these procs should be called. If you're not going to use them, there's no need to check and you can leave them disabled to reduce CPU usage.
• Removed the ability to use a single icon_state for a mob (previously the library would detect when you don't have separate standing, moving, and jumping states).
• Added a return value to mob.set_pos(), it returns 1 if the mob moved at all and 0 if they didn't. The proc needs to be called each tick because it's in charge of updating the camera location, but you may only want things to happen if the mob moved.
• Made the mob's movement only happen if the client's focus is set to their mob.
• Removed the jumped var, now the default key_down proc calls can_jump() and jump() itself.
Version 5.2 (posted 03-15-2012)
• Added the mob.gravity var. This is the acceleration due to gravity used by the gravity() proc.
• Changed the default behavior of set_state to base the distinction between standing and movement states on the mob's moving var instead of their velocity.
• Added the mob.jump_speed var. This is the value that a mob's vel_z var is set to when they jump. This lets you change how high a mob jumps without overriding the jump() proc.
• Added the limit var for the Path object. This is the limit of how many turfs will be checked by the pathfinding algorithm before it gives up. The default value is zero, which means there is no limit.
• Fixed support for the Entered() and Exited() procs for turfs and areas. By default this is disabled (for performance reasons) but can be enabled in _flags.dm.
Version 5.1 (posted 02-15-2012)
• The library now uses the Forum_account.Keyboard library for handling keyboard input. All keyboard input functionality still exists, but most of it was moved to the client. The keys list and the lock_input, unlock_input, and clear_input procs belong to the client. The key_up and key_down procs still exist for the mob. The keyboard library can be downloaded here: http://www.byond.com/developer/Forum_account/Keyboard
• Changed the default behavior of the can_bump proc to make it more like BYOND's default handling. Now dense mobs will bump into other dense mobs. Dense turfs are always treated as dense.
• Changed the way the slow_down() proc works. Previously there were issues with non-player mobs not slowing down after reaching their destination. Now, mobs will keep track of whether or not they moved and will automatically slow down if they didn't move that tick.
• The intermediate-demo has been updated to show the changes to slowing down. When you click on a turf the yellow mob will move to it. Previously, the mob would continue moving at the same velocity once it reached its destination. Now, the mob will slow down once it reaches the destination.
• Made some changes to the intermediate-demo to organize it better. It shows a lot of useful features that you can take and put directly into a project of your own. If you want to get a good idea of what this library can do, this is the demo you should check out.
• Added the mob.accel and mob.decel vars, which control how quickly mobs accelerate and decelerate. Previously this value was hardcoded as being 1. Now it is customizable and the default value is 1 for both vars.
Version 5.0 (posted 11-30-11)
• Removed the library and native modes. Since hybrid mode is the only mode, all of the mode-related options and code have been removed.
• Renamed most of the files. The names are similar: mob-movement.dm became movement.dm, mob-pathing.dm became pathing.dm, hybrid-procs.dm became procs.dm, pixel-movement-hybrid.dm became pixel-movement.dm, mob-debugging.dm became debugging.dm.
• Added collision.dm which contains code that used to be part of the pixel_move() proc.
• Removed the NO_FLAGS flag since all flags are needed by pixel_move() now.
• Removed the offset_x, offset_y, and offset_z vars. The pixel_x, pixel_y, and pixel_z vars can be used instead.
Version 4.1.0 (posted 11-14-11)
• Added the hybrid mode which is now the default mode. It uses some native features (ex: the obounds proc) to improve performance of soft-coded movement. This means that hybrid mode has the same features as library mode but matches the performance of native mode.
• Added the benchmarks\demo-3 demo which has mobs move randomly around an isometric map.
Version 4.0.1 (posted 09-07-11)
• Made some tweaks to the support of the can_bump() and set_pos() procs when native pixel movement is being used.
Version 4.0 (posted 09-07-11)
• Added support for BYOND's native pixel movement feature. It's enabled by default, but you can switch back to the legacy mode using the #define METHOD flag in _flags.dm. Legacy mode gives you some features not supported by the native feature (ramps, 3D movement).
Version 3.4 (posted 08-27-11)
• Fixed a bug with fractional moves in the y and z directions. Thanks to Kaiochao for pointing it out!
• Added the mob.watch() proc. The proc takes a single argument, a mob, and makes your camera follow that mob instead. Because there are pixel offsets applied to your client's eye, following another mob isn't as simple as just setting client.eye = some_other_mob. However, the watch() proc takes care of all the details. The set_camera() proc and camera object are still used and these properties apply the same regardless of which mob you're watching.
• Changed the benchmarks\demo-2\ demo to include example usage of the watch() proc.
• Added an example of pushable boxes to intermediate-demo.
• Made some changes to the SLIDE camera mode to help reduce jitter. It's better, but still not perfect.
• Updated the documentation to include reference pages for the preprocessor flags (TWO_DIMENSIONAL, LIBRARY_DEBUG, etc.), the mob.watch() proc, and the mob's watching and watching_me vars.
Version 3.3 (posted 08-27-11)
• Changed the way path following (the mob.move_to proc) works. It should improve performance and make use of the move() proc's support for 8-directional moves.
• Changed the way path finding works. It now makes use of diagonal moves.
Version 3.2 (posted 07-31-11)
• Fixed runtime errors that were caused by the mob's move_towards proc.
• Added another benchmark (the benchmarks\demo-2 folder) that creates a configurable number of mobs that continuously call move_to. The destination of their moves is a random turf within a configurable distance from their current location.
• Changed the move() proc and action() proc to support diagonal movement. The mob's direction will now be changed to a diagonal (ex: NORTHEAST) if the player is holding both of the corresponding arrow keys.
• These changes also fix a problem with limiting the player's speed. Previously, if a player's move_speed was 5, moving in a diagonal would make vel_x = 3.2 and vel_y = 3.7 when they should really be equal. Now they will be equal (both will be about 3.53).
Version 3.1 (posted 07-22-11)
• Re-added support for fractional moves. Previously, calling pixel_move(1.5, 1) would be the same as calling pixel_move(1, 1) because the decimal part would be ignored. Now decimal parts are accumulated so that mobs always have integer coordinates and perform integer moves, but when the fractional moves accumulate enough, the move will be augmented to reflect this. For example, calling pixel_move(1.2, 0) five times will make the mob move a total of 6 pixels, one of the moves will make them move two pixels, the other four just one pixel each.
• Changed some things in pixel-movement.dm to hopefully avoid some division by zero errors. They hadn't been causing problems (at least not that I'd noticed), but seeing runtime errors is always annoying.
• Added the NO_STEPPED_ON flag. Enabling the flag disables the definition of the atom.stepped_on, stepped_off, and stepping_on procs. If you're not using these procs you can enable this flag to improve performance.
Version 3.0 (posted 06-29-11)
• Changed the inside() proc. The version that takes 6 parameters (that form a bounding box) is now called inside6(). There is still an atom.inside() proc that returns a list of atoms inside src, or when passed an atom as an argument, returns 1 or 0 if the arg is inside src or not. There is also an inside4() proc which is used by the new 2D mode.
• Changed the set_flags() proc to call nearby() instead of oview(2). I forget why it was using oview (I might have had a reason for doing that). This change makes the default movement loop run slightly more than four times faster.
• Added _flags.dm which contains some compile-time flags you can set to change the library's behavior. These flags are used by pre-processor directives to change the actual DM code that's being compiled. This way you can disable a feature to improve runtime performance - at runtime it doesn't even need to check that the feature is disabled, the code for unused features is just not compiled into the .dmb.
• When the TWO_DIMENSIONAL flag is set (#define TWO_DIMENSIONAL) the library only provides 2D movement and collision detection. If your game doesn't use jumping this can greatly reduce CPU usage.
• When the LIBRARY_DEBUG flag is set the debugging features (ex: mob.start_trace()) are defined and enabled. Before this flag existed, movement procs would always be checking if a movement trace was enabled. These checks would waste time when you weren't using the feature.
• When the NO_FLAGS flag is set the atom.flags var (and the flags_left, flags_right, etc. vars) and the corresponding mob vars (on_ground, on_left, etc.) are not defined. The set_flags() proc is also not defined. If you're using the TWO_DIMENSIONAL flag there's a good chance you can use this flag too. Together they really improve performance - set_flags() is one of the bigger CPU users.
• Added the benchmarks\demo-1 demo. This demo creates a number of balls that bounce around the map. You can run this demo and take note of what the CPU usage is, then make changes to the library (ex: add #define TWO_DIMENSIONAL) and run it again to see how CPU usage changes. You can easily change the ball count to stress the server as much or as little as you want.
• Fixed a problem with fall_speed, it was being applied to vel_y instead of vel_z (whoops!)
• Re-removed support for fractional moves. You can still call pixel_move(3.5, 0), but you'll only move 3 pixels. I need to find a better way to handle this, but it'll have to wait until the next update.
Version 2.4 (posted 06-05-11)
• Made some tweaks to accommodate fractional moves. In particular, I made the camera's movement less shaky. There are still some issues when the camera mode is SLIDE, but it seems to be improved for FOLLOW mode.
• Added better handling of ramps. If a ramp is elevated enough you can walk under it.
• Added better support for bumping objects from below.
• Updated the isometric-demo to show these updates. (there are still some layering issues, I'm not sure if that's BYOND's fault or mine)
Version 2.3 (posted 05-30-11)
• Added support for any value of world.icon_size, not just the default 32.
• Added the "icon-size-demo" which shows that the library supports any value for world.icon_size.
• Re-added support for fractional moves. The library used to round your pixel coordinates so if you moved 3.5 pixels each tick, you'd really only move 3 pixels each tick. There was no difference between moving 3.9 or 3.0 pixels per tick. Now there is. (Note: this had caused some problems which is why I first removed the feature. If you notice weird things happening, this might be the cause, so let me know.)
Version 2.2 (posted 05-15-11)
• Added control scheme demos (in the control-scheme\ folder):
• The control-scheme\vehicle\ demo shows how to create a movement system where the left and right arrow keys make the mob turn, and the up/down keys make the mob move forwards or backwards.
• The control-scheme\zelda\ demo shows how to create Zelda-like movement. The player can move in four directions and adjusts to be aligned with half-tile boundaries. This makes it easier for the player, who is a full 32x32 rectangle, line up and fit through one-tile wide passages.
• The control-scheme\wasd\ demo shows how to use the new mob.controls var to make mobs that move using the WASD keys instead of the arrow keys.
• Added the mob.check_loc() proc. It's nothing new, it contains code that used to be part of the mob's default movement proc. check_loc checks for situations where a mob's loc var was changed directly and updates the mob's pixel coordinates when this happens. check_loc() is called by the global movement loop, so you don't lose this behavior even if you override the mob's movement proc.
• Added documentation in _reference.dm for check_loc(), world.movement(), start_trace(), stop_trace(), and mob.controls.
• Fixed a problem with macro initialization - macros wouldn't work when you had a .dmf file with multiple windows.
• Added mob-debugging.dm which contains the Stat proc (that used to be in world.dm) and contains a new debugging feature.
• Added the mob.start_trace and mob.stop_trace procs. When start_trace() is called, all of the mob's movement related actions (calls to movement, move, bump, pixel_move, set_pos, etc.) will be kept in a log. When stop_trace() is called the log will be displayed in the browser.
• Added the mob.controls var, which is an object that has five vars of its own: left, right, up, down, and jump. By default their values are (in the order I mentioned them): west, east, north, south, and space. You can change these values to change what keys are used for the default movement behavior.
• Added a reference page called "Pixel Movement Debugging" which explains the debugging features that the library offers and how/when to use them.
• Added a demo called performance-demo, which shows some simple optimizations that can drastically reduce your game's CPU usage. Run the demo with and without including optimizations.dm to see how much of a difference the optimizations make.
Version 2.1 (posted 05-10-11)
• Made mobs stick to ramps while walking down them. Previously mobs would just fall down the ramp, like they kept walking off a ledge. Not only did it look weird, but it made it almost impossible to jump while walking down a ramp.
• Changed the move() proc and bump() proc to use the directions NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, and WEST instead of UP, DOWN, LEFT, and RIGHT. The bump() proc still uses the VERTICAL constant for bumps in the z direction. (Note: BYOND defines UP and DOWN vars so you won't get errors if you have them in your code, but they aren't the same values as NORTH and SOUTH so your code might not work).
• Fixed a mapping error in the zelda-demo, on the bottom middle screen there was a tile with the wrong area, causing the camera to go haywire.
• Added _reference.dm which contains code to generate DM reference pages for all vars and procs defined by the library. This will let you press F1 in Dream Maker to get help with using the library, just like you do with DM's built-in features. See _reference.dm for instructions.
Version 2.0 (posted 05-07-11)
• Added the move_speed and fall_speed vars. These limit how fast the player can run and fall.
• Made the move() proc limit the mob's combined velocity in the x and y direction. The magnitude of the player's combined x and y velocities is limited by move_speed. Previously, the x and y velocities were limited separately so the mob could move faster in diagonal directions.
• Added the action() proc which is called by the default movement() behavior. The action proc contains the movement logic - the code that calls move(). This way you can override a mob's movement actions without having to override movement().
• Added camera.dm which contains the set_camera proc (which was previously in pixel-movement.dm) and the /Camera object. A var called "camera" was added for mobs that's an instance of the Camera object. This object stores all properties related to the camera.
• The camera.mode var can be set to camera.FOLLOW or camera.SLIDE to switch between a camera that strictly follows the mob and one that speeds up and slows down to smoothly follow the mob.
• The camera.lag var can be used to specify the number of pixels the mob can move away from the camera before the camera will move to follow the mob.
• The camera.px and camera.py vars can be used to set the camera's position.
• The camera.minx, camera.maxx, camera.miny, and camera.maxy vars can be used to specify bounds on the camera's position. The set_camera proc's default behavior will not move the camera outside of these bounds.
• Removed the need for keyboard.dmf
• Put copies of common\map.dmm and placed them in the isometric-demo\, demo\, and top-down-demo\ folders, which removed the need for the common\ folder. To run a demo now, just include (check off) all files in a subfolder.
• Made the set_state proc check that the new icon state exists in the player's icon. This is meant to make including the library even easier because you don't need to define separate standing, moving, and jumping states (though, if you want to make use of those animations, you'll obviously need to create those states)
• If a pdepth value isn't specified for an atom, it's pdepth will be set depending on its density. If it's dense, its pdepth will be 32, otherwise its pdepth with be zero. This lets you not have to worry about pdepth if you don't have jumping in your game.
• Added mob-pathing.dm which contains pathfinding functions for mobs that use pixel movement.
• The mob.move_to(atom/a) proc plans a path using the A* algorithm that the mob can follow to reach the specified tile. This proc is like BYOND's walk_to proc.
• The mob.move_towards(atom/a) proc makes the mob move in the direction of the specified atom but doesn't use intelligent pathfinding. This proc is like BYOND's walk_towards proc.
• Added the atom vars: flags, flags_left, flags_right, flags_top, flags_bottom, and flags_ground. These vars are numbers that get binary ORed with a mob's on_ground, on_left, on_right, etc. vars when the mob is standing next to the atom. flags sets the value for all sides of the atom, the other vars are specific to one side (ex: the atom's flags_right defines the properties of the atom's right side, so it gets ORed only with a mob's on_left var since the right side of the atom touches the mob's left side).
• Added ramps. You can use the atom.ramp and atom.ramp_dir vars to create sloped objects. atom.ramp_dir is a direction (NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, or WEST) that defines the direction of the ramp. Setting it to NORTH means that the ramp gets higher as you move north along it. The atom.ramp var defines how much the height changes (in pixels) along the length of the ramp.
• Replace the mob's x_bump, y_bump, and z_bump procs with the single mob.bump(atom/a, d) proc. The first argument is the atom the mob bumped into, the second argument is the direction of motion, which is LEFT or RIGHT for x-bumps, UP or DOWN for y-bumps, and VERTICAL for z-bumps.
• Added a demo called "zelda-demo" which shows how to use the library to create some features you'd expect to see in a Zelda-like game. It includes melee attacks, projectiles, enemies, and camera control.
• Changed some demos to make use of BYOND's new SIDE_MAP value for map_format.
Version 1.0 (posted 02-03-11)
• Added some comments (particularly file headers).
• Changed the way keyboard input is handled, the macros are now defined at runtime instead of being defined in a .dmf file. This means that when you use the library, you can use your own .dmf file and don't need to worry about defining certain macros.
Version 0.9 (posted 01-19-11)
• Removed the get_ground, get_left, get_right, get_top, and get_bottom procs and replaced them with the set_flags proc.
• Added the below helper proc which returns a list of bumpable atoms directly below the mob.
• Created this library to replace Forum_account.Isometric since this library has support for top-down and isometric platformers.
• Modified the code from the isometric library to mirror changes that were made to the Forum_account.Sidescroller library.